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Parts of XML document to which template should be applied are determined by location paths. The required syntax is specified in the XPath specification. Simple cases looks very similar to filesystem addressing. ( XSLT stylesheet 1 )

XSLT stylesheet 1

XML Source

<AAA id="a1" pos="start">
     <BBB id="b1"/>
     <BBB id="b2"/>
<AAA id="a2">
     <BBB id="b3"/>
     <BBB id="b4"/>
     <CCC id="c1">
          <DDD id="d1"/>
     <BBB id="b5">
          <CCC id="c2"/>


<div style="color:purple">BBB id=b1</div>

<div style="color:purple">BBB id=b2</div>

<div style="color:purple">BBB id=b3</div>

<div style="color:purple">BBB id=b4</div>

<p style="color:red">DDD id=d1</p>

<div style="color:purple">BBB id=b5</div>

HTML view
BBB id=b1
BBB id=b2
BBB id=b3
BBB id=b4

DDD id=d1

BBB id=b5
XSLT stylesheet
<xsl:stylesheet version = '1.0'

<xsl:template match="BBB">
     <div style="color:purple">
          <xsl:value-of select="name()"/>
          <xsl:text> id=</xsl:text>
          <xsl:value-of select="@id"/>

<xsl:template match="/source/AAA/CCC/DDD">
     <p style="color:red">
          <xsl:value-of select="name()"/>
          <xsl:text> id=</xsl:text>
          <xsl:value-of select="@id"/>